Crocodile UPSC | World Crocodile Day 17 June

Crocodile UPSC | World Crocodile Day 20 June | Why In The News ?

World Crocodile Day is celebrated on 17th June. The day is a global awareness campaign to highlight the plight of endangered crocodiles and alligators around the world.

Crocodile UPSC | World Crocodile Day 17 June

Crocodilian Species in India :

  • Mugger or Marsh Crocodile
  • Estuarine or Saltwater Crocodile
  • Gharial

Mugger or Marsh Crocodile 

Description:

  • The mugger is an egg-laying and hole-nesting species.
  • The mugger is also known to be dangerous.

Habitat:

  • It is mainly restricted to the Indian subcontinent where it may be found in a number of freshwater habitat types including rivers, lakes and marshes.
  • However, it can even be found in coastal saltwater lagoons and estuaries.
  • It is already extinct in Bhutan and Myanmar.

Threats:

  • Habitat destruction, fragmentation, and transformation, fishing activities and use of crocodiles parts for medicinal purposes.

Read Also – Indian Vultures | UPSC |

Protection Status:

  • IUCN List of Threatened Species: Vulnerable
  • CITES : Appendix I
  • Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 : Schedule I

Estuarine or Saltwater Crocodile

About Saltwater Crocodile 

  • It is considered as the Earth’s largest living crocodile species.
  • The estuarine crocodile is infamous globally as a known maneater.
  • It is found in Odisha’s Bhitarkanika National Park, the Sundarbans in West Bengal and the Andamans and Nicobar Islands.
  • It is also found across Southeast Asia and northern Australia.

Protection Status:

  • IUCN List of Threatened Species: Least Concern
  • CITES : Appendix I (except the populations of Australia, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea, which are included in Appendix II).
  • Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 : Schedule I

Gharial

  • Gharials, sometimes called gavials
  • distinguished by their long, thin snouts which resemble a pot.
  • Gharials are a type of Crocodilians that also includes crocodiles, alligators, caimans, etc.
  • The population of Gharials is a good indicator of clean river water.
  • The gharial is known to be a relatively harmless, fish-eating species.
  • The gharials are mostly found in fresh waters of the himalayan rivers.
  • The chambal river in the northern slopes of the Vindhya mountains ( Madhya Pradesh) is known as the primary habitat of gharials.
  • Other himalayan rivers like ghagra, gandak river, Girwa river, Ramganga river and the Sone river are secondary habitats for gharials.

Protection Status:

  • IUCN List of Threatened Species: Critically Endangered
  • CITES : Appendix I
  • Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 : Schedule I

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