Paryushan Parva | UPSC

Paryushan Parva | UPSC | Why In The News ?

  • Recently Paryushan parva Was Celebrated

About Paryushan Parva :

  • Paryushana is the most important annual holy event for Jains.
  • It is usually celebrated in August or September in Hindi calendar Bhadrapad Month’s Shukla Paksha. 
  • Jains increase their level of spiritual intensity often using fasting and prayer/meditation to help. 
  • The five main vows are emphasized during this time.
  • Paryushan Parva is a major Jain festival that lasts seven days, culminating in “Samvatsari Parvi‘ (Forgiveness Day)  
  • On this day, Jains greet each other with ―Michhami Dukkadam‖ and observe a day-long fast.

Michhami Dukkadam‘ 

  • It is an ancient phrase from the Prakrit language, which is uttered by one seeking forgiveness for any ill-will or bad deeds and offering a renewal of relationship.  
  • Digambaras refer to the event as Das Lakshana Dharma while Svetambara refer to it as Paryushan (“abiding” or “coming together”).

Paryushan Parva | UPSC

Why is Paryushan Celebrated ?

This festival gives everyone a chance for self-analysis and deep introspection. It also reminds us that life’s eventual and main aim is not the pursuit of materialism but to attain the state of Nirvana. Paryushan stands for some of the most important practices like:

  • Nonviolence (Ahimsa)
  • Engaging in self-discipline (Sanyam)
  • Partial or complete fasting Penance (Tapah)
  • Study of Scriptures (Swadhyaya)
  • Introspection (Pratikraman)
  • Repentance (Prayaschitta)

Read Also – Dharma Chakra Day | UPSC

During the Paryushan days, below mentioned are the five essential things Jains try and observe:

SADHARMIK VATSALYA:

  • It means the welfare of the other fellow Jainis.

AMARI PRAVARTAN:

  • Following ahimsa or non-violence is also one of the major aspects of this festival.

ATTHAMA TAP:

  • Fasting for days is also considered as one of the major aspects. People also practice ayambils which means one meal of tasteless food, during the whole day.

Other forms of taps are:

Ekashana:

  • Eating only once a day

Byasana:

  • Eating twice a day.

Chaitya Paripati:

  • It involves daily visits to temples, pilgrimage to holy places, paying respect and devotion to the Lord Mahavira through worship, prayers, and meditation.

Kshamapana:

  • It is one of the most significant parts of celebrating this festival. Kshamapana means forgiveness. It involves asking for forgiveness from all the people whom we may have hurt in the past or present life. It also includes forgiving those who have hurt us and forgive them for their shortcomings and weaknesses.

Samvatsari:

  • The last day of this 8-day long festival is Samvatsari, and it is the most important of all. Most Jains try to have a fast and get together to perform the Pratikraman. This is also the day where everyone asks to ‘Forgive and Forget’ – Tass Michami Dukkaram.

Division in Jainism:

  • Jain order has been divided into two major sects: Digambara and Svetambara.
  • The division occurred particularly due to famine in Magadha which compelled a group led by Bhadrabahu to move South India.
  • During the 12 years famine, the group in South India stuck to the strict practices while the group in Magadha adopted a more lax attitude and started wearing white clothes.
  • When the Southern group came back to Magadha after the famine got over, the changed practices led to the division of Jainism into two sects.
Basis Digambara Svetambara
Clothing Male monks do not wear clothes while female monks wear unstitched plain white sarees. Monks wear white clothes.
Vows They Follow all five vows (Satya, Ahimsa, Asteya, Aparigraha and Brahmacharya) Follow only 4 vows (except brahmacharya).
Women Liberation Believe women cannot achieve liberation. Believe women can achieve liberation.
Main Exponent Bhadrabahu Sthulabhadra
Sub Sects
  • Mula Sangh
  • Bisapantha
  • Taranpantha or Samaiyapantha
  • Murtipujak
  • Sthanakvasi
  • Terapanthi

 

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