Girnar 4 and Girnar 5 Groundnut Varieties | UPSC

Girnar 4 and Girnar 5 Groundnut Varieties | UPSC | Why In The News ?

  • Two High Oleic Groundnut Varieties, Girnar 4 & Girnar 5 Developed by ICAR-ICRISAT

Girnar 4 and Girnar 5 Groundnut Varieties

Key Points 

  • Groundnut is the main oil seed crop in India and it plays a major role in bridging the vegetable oil deficit in the country. 
  • Groundnuts in India are available throughout the year due to a two-crop cycle harvested in March and October.
  • Two high-oleic groundnut varieties
  • ICAR-Directorate of Groundnut Research, Junagadh in collaboration with the ICRISAT has developed two high oleic groundnut varieties for the first time in India, namely Girnar 4 and Girnar 5. 
  • In normal groundnut the oleic acid content varies from 40-50% while these new varieties have nearly 80% of oleic acid.
  • Girnar 4 and Girnar 5, are identified for cultivation as kharif crop in five major groundnut growing states, namely Gujarat, Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.

Girnar 4 and Girnar 5 Groundnut Varieties | UPSC

Oleic Acid 

  • Oleic acid is a monounsaturated fatty acid with health benefits including reduced risk of developing cardiovascular diseases.

Top 10 Groundnut Producing States in India

  1. Gujarat
  2. Rajasthan
  3. Tamil Nadu
  4. Andhra Pradesh
  5. Karnataka
  6. Madhya Pradesh
  7. Maharashtra 
  8. West Bengal
  9. Uttar Pradesh
  10.  Odisha 

About Groundnut & Climate Need For Cultivation

  • Climatic conditions such as temperature and rainfall significantly influence the groundnut production.
  • Warm and moist conditions are very favorable than cool and wet climate, which results in slow germination and seedling emergence, increasing the risk of seed rot and seedling diseases.
  • Temperature is a major environmental factor that determines the rate of crop development.
  • Temperatures above 35°C inhibit the growth of groundnut.
  • Optimum mean daily temperature to grow is 30°C and growth ceases at 15°C.
  • For rapid emergence, soil temperature above 21°C is needed.
  • The optimum temperature for the most rapid germination and seedling development is about 30°C.
  • A minimum 100 – day optimum temperature growing season is necessary for successful groundnut crop production.
  • Adequate and well distributed rainfall during the growing season, especially during flowering, pegging and pod formation stages, is essential for maximum yield and quality of groundnut.
  • Groundnut is grown in areas receiving 600 to 1500 mm of rainfall.
  • However, the crop can be grown successfully with a rainfall of 1250 mm.

MACS 6478 wheat variety | UPSC

The amount of rainfall required:

  • Pre-sowing operations (preparatory cultivation) 100 mm
  • Sowing 150 mm
  • Flowering and pod development 400-500 mm

The groundnut crop cannot stand

  • Frost for long
  • Severe drought
  • Water stagnation

Source : ICRISAT

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