Green Hydrogen UPSC | Types | Uses | Making Of Green Hydrogen

Green Hydrogen UPSC | Types | Uses | Making Of Green Hydrogen : Why In The News ?

  • Recently, government has announced the Green Hydrogen mission where the target is to make the country self-reliance in energy by 2047.

What Is Hydrogen ?

  • Hydrogen is the lightest and first element on the periodic table.
  • Since the weight of hydrogen is less than air, it rises in the atmosphere and is therefore rarely found in its pure form, H2.
  • At standard temperature and pressure, hydrogen is a nontoxic, nonmetallic, odorless, tasteless, colorless, and highly combustible diatomic gas.
  • Hydrogen fuel is a zero-emission fuel burned with oxygen.
  • It can be used in fuel cells or internal combustion engines.
  • It is also used as a fuel for spacecraft propulsion.
Green Hydrogen UPSC | Types | Uses | Making Of Green Hydrogen
Green Hydrogen UPSC | Types | Uses | Making Of Green Hydrogen

Types of Hydrogen: Green Hydrogen

Brown Hydrogen
  • Most of the gas that is already widely used as an industrial chemical is either brown, if it’s made through the gasification of coal or lignite
Grey Hydrogen
  • If it is made through steam methane reformation, which typically uses natural gas as the feedstock. Neither of these processes is exactly carbon-friendly.
Blue Hydorgen
  • Where the gas is produced by steam methane reformation but the emissions are curtailed using carbon capture and storage.
Green Hydrogen
  • Green hydrogen, in contrast, could almost eliminate emissions by using renewable energy — increasingly abundant and often generated at less-than-ideal times — to power the electrolysis of water.

Occurrence of Hydrogen:

  • It is the most abundant element in the universe.
  • The sun and other stars are composed largely of hydrogen.
  • Astronomers estimate that 90% of the atoms in the universe are hydrogen atoms.
  • Hydrogen is a component of more compounds than any other element.
  • Water is the most abundant compound of hydrogen found on earth.
  • Molecular hydrogen is not available on Earth in convenient natural reservoirs.
  • Most hydrogen on Earth is bonded to oxygen in water and to carbon in live or dead and/or fossilized biomass.
  • It can be created by splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen.

Read also : International Solar Alliance | UPSC | Power, Functions

Storage Of Hydrogen :

  • Hydrogen can be stored physically as either a gas or a liquid.
  • Storage of hydrogen as a gas typically requires high-pressure tanks.
  • Storage of hydrogen as a liquid requires cryogenic temperatures because the boiling point of hydrogen at one atmosphere pressure is −252.8°C.
  • Hydrogen can also be stored on the surfaces of solids (by adsorption) or within solids (by absorption).

Usage of Hydrogen :

  • Hydrogen is used in the synthesis of ammonia and the manufacture of nitrogenous fertilizers.
  • Hydrogenation of unsaturated vegetable oils for manufacturing vanaspati fat.
  • It is used in the manufacture of many organic compounds, for example, methanol.
  • Hydrogen chloride is a very useful chemical and is prepared from hydrogen.
  • Hydrogen can reduce many metal oxides to metals by metallurgical processes.
  • Hydrogen is used as rocket fuel in many space research activities.
  • Hydrogen fuel is being experimented within the automotive industry with hydrogen fuel cells.

What Are The Challenges In Making Hydrogen ?

  • The challenge right now is that big electrolyzers are in short supply, and plentiful supplies of renewable electricity still come at a significant
  • Storing and transporting the highly flammable gas is not easy; it takes up a lot of space and has a habit of making steel pipes and welds brittle and prone to failure.
  • The bulk transport of hydrogen will require dedicated pipelines, which would be costly to build, pressurizing the gas, or cooling it to a liquid.
  • High Cost: In a report published last year (using data from 2018), the International Energy Agency put the cost of green hydrogen at $3 to $7.50 per kilo, compared to $0.90 to $3.20 for production using steam methane reformation.
  • Loss of Efficiency in every process: Electrolyzer efficiencies range from around 60 percent to 80 percent, according to Shell. The efficiency challenge is exacerbated by the fact that many applications may require green hydrogen to power a fuel cell, leading to further losses.

Current Production Of green Hydrogen :

  • Green hydrogen currently accounts for less than 1 percent of total annual hydrogen production.
  • The pipeline of green hydrogen electrolyzer projects nearly tripled in the five months leading up to April 2020, to 8.2 gigawatts.

Green Hydrogen Infrastructure in India:

  • India was focusing on producing blue and green hydrogen along with blended hydrogen in Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) for various purposes, including transport.
  • Through technological advancements, India is blending hydrogen with compressed natural gas for use as transportation fuel as well as an industrial input to refineries.
  • 50 buses in Delhi are plying on blended hydrogen in Compressed Natural Gas on a pilot basis.
  • The Indian Oil Corporation Limited announced it would set up the country’s first green hydrogen Plant . 
  • Reliance Energy said that it would invest Rs 600 billion in building factories to produce green hydrogen among other carbon friendly technologies.







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